1時間目 チェア マー君


9 Secrets of Motivated People


Real-life strategies that will help you to actually accomplish the goals you’ve set for yourself this year.

New year, new you. It's the perennial January catchphrase that holds such conquer-the-world promise. And then, well, you get sidetracked with conquering your to-do list. But even the loftiest resolutions (running a marathon, writing a book) don't have to fall by the wayside come February. Staying motivated―and achieving what you set out to do on that bright New Year's Day―is surprisingly possible. Just follow these nine mantras, provided by researchers who study motivation and backed up by women who have used them to realize their biggest ambitions.

1. When you make a plan, anticipate bumps. Before even trying to achieve a goal, target potential pitfalls and troubleshoot them. Peter Gollwitzer, a professor of psychology at New York University, in New York City, says that people who plan for obstacles are more likely to stick with projects than those who don't. In a 2009 study published in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Gollwitzer compared two groups of women who wanted to be more active. Both groups were given information on leading healthy lifestyles. But the second was also taught how to foresee obstacles (example: "The weather forecast is bad, but I'm planning to go for a jog") and work around them using if-then statements ("If it rains, then I'll go to the gym and use the treadmill rather than skip exercising altogether"). No surprise, those in the second group fared better. Michelle Tillis Lederman of New York City practiced this strategy when she was writing a book last year. She installed blinds on her home-office door to minimize disruptions and hired an editor to give feedback on each chapter so she wouldn't get stuck along the way. She also established rules, like checking e-mails only after she had written for two hours. "It was easier to follow this plan," says Lederman, "than to wrestle with every distraction in the moment." Her book, The 11 Laws of Likability (American Management Association), will be published later this year.

2. Channel the little engine that could―really. A person's drive is often based on what she believes about her abilities, not on how objectively talented she is, according to research by Albert Bandura, a professor of psychology at Stanford University. His work has shown that people who have perceived self-efficacy (that is, the belief that they can accomplish what they set out to do) perform better than those who don't. That self-belief is what helped Ingrid Daniels of Newark, New Jersey, leave a stable corporate job to develop a T-shirt line after the birth of her first child. "It never occurred to me I could fail, even though I had no experience," she says. Today Daniels runs two successful small businesses (the T-shirt company and a line of stationery), which allows her to stay at home with her three children.

3. Don't let your goals run wild... When your sights are too ambitious, they can backfire, burn you out, and actually become demotivating, says Lisa Ordóñez, a professor of management and organizations at the Eller College of Management, at the University of Arizona, in Tucson. Instead of aiming unrealistically high (such as trying to save enough money for a down payment on a home in six months), set goals that are a stretch but not an overreach (come up with a doable savings plan for your budget).

...But work on them everyday. According to Daniel Pink, author of Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us ($27, amazon.com), taking small steps every day will not only help hold your interest in what you're trying to achieve but will also ensure that you move slowly, but surely, toward your goal. So, for example, set up a down-payment-fund jar and dump your change into it every night. You'll get a sense of accomplishment each day, to boot.

4. Go public with it. Instead of keeping your intentions to yourself, make them known to many. "Other people can help reinforce your behavior," says James Fowler, a political scientist who studies social networks at the University of California, San Diego. After all, it's harder to abandon a dream when you know that people are tracking your progress. Take Stefanie Samarripa of Dallas, 25, who wanted to lose 20 pounds. She created a blog and told all her friends to read it. "I wanted something to hold me accountable," she says. Samarripa weighs herself weekly and announces the result on Desperately Seeking Skinny (skinnystefsam.blogspot.com). During her first three weeks, she lost six pounds. "People read my updates and make comments, which helps me keep going," she says.

5. Lean on a support crew when struggling. Think of the friends and family who truly want to see you succeed. Enlisting those with whom you have authentic relationships is key when your motivation begins to wane. Choose people who may have seen you fail in the past and who know how much success means to you, says Edward L. Deci, a professor of psychology at the University of Rochester, in New York. For Jane Arginteanu of New York City, support came in the form of her fiancé, Glenn. Arginteanu had smoked from the time she was a teenager and had tried to quit before. When she decided to give it another go, Arginteanu says, "Glenn stood by me and told me, without ever issuing an ultimatum, that he wanted to grow old with me. That was terrific motivation." A year later, she's smoke-free.

6. Make yourself a priority. Put your needs first, even when it feels utterly selfish. You will derail your progress if you sacrifice yourself for others in order to please them (such as eating a cupcake that a coworker baked even though you're on a diet). A few years ago, Karen Holtgrefe of Cincinnati was at the bottom of her own priority list. "I had a demanding full-time job as a physical-therapy manager and was teaching physical therapy part-time," she says. "Plus, I had a husband and two children to care for." As a result, she found herself stressed-out, overweight, and suffering from constant backaches. "I hit a wall and realized I needed to make some changes for my sanity," Holtgrefe says. So she quit the part-time teaching job, joined Weight Watchers, and scheduled nonnegotiable walks six days a week―just for her. In a year, she lost 85 pounds, and her back pain (and stress) disappeared.

7. Challenge yourself―and change things up. It's hard to remain enthusiastic when everything stays the same, says Frank Busch, who has coached three Olympic swimming teams. To keep his athletes motivated, he constantly challenges and surprises them―adding a new exercise to a weight routine or giving them a break from one practice so they can recharge. Amy Litvak of Atlanta did the same thing. She had several half-marathons under her belt but wanted something new, so she signed up for a series of mini triathlons. "Each race was longer than the last or had a slightly different challenge," she says. She breezed through them and is now training for a full marathon.

8. Keep on learning. To refuel your efforts, focus on enjoying the process of getting to the goal, rather than just eyeing the finish line. Janet Casson of Queens, New York, set out to teach yoga. She completed her training, but finding a position took longer than anticipated. So she wouldn't lose steam and become discouraged, Casson used the time to perfect her skills. She attended workshops and studied with different teachers. "It was invigorating and kept me working toward my goal," says Casson, who now teaches five classes a week.

9. Remember the deeper meaning. You're more likely to realize a goal when it has true personal significance to you, according to Deci. (For example, "I want to learn to speak French so I can communicate with my Canadian relatives" is a more powerful reason than "I should learn French so that I can be a more cultured person.") And when the process isn't a pleasant one, it helps to recall that personal meaning. Not all dedicated gym-goers love working out, Deci points out, but because they have a deep desire to be healthy, they exercise week after week. Jennie Perez-Ray of Parsippany, New Jersey, is a good example of this. She was working full-time when she decided to get her master's degree. However, she knew that pursuing that goal would mean spending less time with her friends and family. "But I was the first person in my family to get a degree, so it was very important to me," Perez-Ray says. She kept this in mind every evening that she spent in the classroom. Although the sacrifices she made were hard, she reflects, "reaching my goal made it all worthwhile."

Q1. Which strategies do you find important in accomplishing goals you set out for yourself? Why?

Q2. Have you ever tried some of the strategies listed here? What did you use and how was the result?

Q3. Do you think that there are other mottos to help you accomplish goals? If so, what are they?

Q4. When you achieved something in the past, how were you able to maintain your motivation until you got the result.

Q5. Did you make New Year’s resolutions? Please share them with us. Tell us why you set the goals and how you are planning to achieve them?

Q6. What are the things you would like to do before you die?

2時間目 チェア シロさん

このセッションでは、Japan Timesを読んでディスカッションをしました。以下がそのマテリアルです。



January 13, 2012

Japan’s Problems

To the Editor:

“The Myth of Japan’s Failure,” by Eamonn Fingleton (Sunday Review, Jan.

Japan is now a shrinking, more insular and less relevant nation. Its
birthrate dwindles because women don’t want to raise children in a society
where husbands are forced by corporate loyalties to be absentee parents. Its
suicide rate, at nearly 25 per 100,000, is among the world’s highest.
Thousands of its rural towns are dens of lonely elderly without the youthful
infrastructure to sustain their longevity.

Its political system has been shorn of credibility. Its fiscal deficit is
far larger than our own, more than twice its gross domestic product. Japan’
s old-boy system of corporate cronyism and top-down control continues to
flourish, as the current Olympus scandal demonstrates.

The Fukushima disaster proved again the nation’s inability to properly
manage a foreseeable crisis. Dodging responsibility, not demanding
accountability, remains the “Japanese way.”

Japan’s unique culture of conformity, insularity, sacrifice and order was
superbly suited for a 20th-century paradigm of mass production and hardware,
but has great difficulty adapting to a 21st century dominated by
personalization, individuality and software.

America’s new fragility does not somehow make Japan stronger. Ask those
thousands of young Japanese men and women who now choose to live in Brooklyn
or San Francisco. They are seeking the personal empowerment that Japan
systematically rejects.

MICHAEL ZIELENZIGER Oakland, Calif., Jan. 12, 2012

The writer is a former foreign correspondent and the author of “Shutting
Out the Sun: How Japan Created Its Own Lost Generation.”


3時間目 チェア ヘブン

このセッションでは、CNNのニュースを聞いてそれを段落毎に読んで要約、読んで要約を繰り返して、内容確認を終えた後で、内容についてのディスカッションをしました。内容が、マイケルジャクソンを殺したことで、裁判を起された医師の話でした。CNNのリポーターがThe judge threw the book at him.と言っている場面があり、「えぇ!本を投げたんかい?!」と思ったら、それは、判決を下すという意味のイディオムでした。英語の表現のヴァライエティに、とても感動したセッションでした。

たしかに、このニュースは色々と聞いて知っていましたが、そんなに注意して見ていなかったので、このような形で知れて嬉しかったです。Dr. Murray は、マイケルジャクソンを殺してしまったことに対して、全然反省の色もなく、「これは彼が自分で望んでやったことだ」と裁判では発言している。しかし、CNNの意見に僕も賛成だが、患者が望んだことを、全てするのが医者の役目ではなかろう。それが間違った方向に進んでいるのであれば、正しい助言、道筋を示すのが医者の役目ではないのか、それで、その人が死んでしまったら、それは、「その人の自己責任ですよ」では、一体、何のための医者の責任なのか。CNNが言っていたのは、He cared only about the money of the patient but not the health.的なことをいい、医者が自分たちの給料を考えて、不要な薬を売りつけるケースが多く目立つ昨今であるが、それを糾弾するスタンスを取っていた。

しかし、よく考えれば、人が道でのたれ死のうが、ホームレスになっていようが、貧困で喘いでいようが、それはその人の自己責任であるとする、最高なまでに個人主義を追及する、アメリカの主義主張から見れば、たしかにこの事件は、マイケルジャクソンが、Second opinionを求めなかったことや、進んでその治療を受けたことで死に至るとすれば、それは、アメリカ社会の根本的な思想が、彼を死に追いやったのだから、Dr. Murrayを責めればいいというものでもなかろう。Pre. Obamaが国民皆保険を導入するに当たり、保守系のアメリカ人達は、アメリカを社会主義にするのか、との悩乱した意見を発していたが、だったら、郵便は社会主義なのか、公共交通機関は社会主義なのか、と個人的には言いたくもなる。僕個人の意見としては、頼むから、弱い人を助けようとするシステムで、社会全体を良くしていってもらいたいと思う。そんなことを思わしてくれた、とても素晴らしいセッションでした。ヘブン、ありがとうございました。

4時間目 チェア Steven

このセッションでは、StevenがComic stripsを持ってきてくれ、それはどういう意味かをみんなであーだこーだいいながら解読して、残った時間をディスカッションをするというものでした。アメリカのジョークはとてもわかりにくいものですね。

一つは、タクシーの運転手が、おばあちゃんとそのバッグをホテルの前に連れてきて、ホテルのクラークに「Please take this bag to the lobby.」と言ったら、そのホテルのクラークがそのおばあちゃんをホテルの中に連れて行こうとします。そこで、おばあちゃんが一言。「Wait a second, will you?」これは、僕的にはかなり面白いかったです。英語でbagを引いてもらえればわかりますが、1、バッグ2,3,4、と続く中で、最後の方に、unpleasant old womanやugly womanという意味も見つかります。

次は、ある男性がだらだらしているところに、ある女性が、"I worry that you are not going anywhere." と言ったところで、その男性が"I know, but if I am going nowhere, the joy is in the journey."と返して終了します。not going anywhereは、そのまま訳せば、どこにも行かない。肉体的にどこにも行かない、という意味にもなれば、実は、もう一つの意味で、成功する、という意味もあります。そこで、彼は、「もし僕が成功することがないんだったら、成功するまでの旅路に楽しみがあるんだよ」と返しているわけです。

次は、ある人が、双眼鏡で町を見ていました。横の人が何が見えるの?と聞くと、その方は、「あそこでは人は誰でも幸せで、子供は人類の宝とされ、年寄りも社会機構がしっかりサポートして、悠々自適な生活をしている。犯罪はなく、誰もが、人のためと思って生きている。そんな町が見えます。」と言った後、その横の人が、"Oh, you have rose-colored glasses."と言って終了します。






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